Opposition to Pentecostalism 1907-1930.
The religious press has frequently attacked
Pentecostalism. It has often received attention from the secular
press. The report contained in the Los Angeles Times 1.of
Wednesday, April 18th, 1906 9-part II p.1. played an important
part in spreading the news of the reappearance of speaking
in tongues, which was Pentecostalism’s most spectacular
The dramatic record was heightened in its
effect when the reporter recorded that one of the participants
related a vision in which, “he prophesied awful destruction
to this city.” On the morning that the report was published,
San Francisco, some 400 miles away was shaken by an earthquake.
On the following day at noon Los Angeles also felt a tremor.
Frank Bartleman was sitting in Peniel Hall on South Main Street
at the time. That night he went to William Joseph Seymour’s
Azusa Street Mission for the first time. He recorded:
The newspapers began to ridicule and abuse
the meetings, thus giving us much free advertising.2.
The first issue of the Azusa Street paper,
Apostolic Faith,3. of September 1906, fell into the hands
of the English-born Norwegian Methodist minister Thomas Ball
Barratt in New York. He was staying at Dr A B Simpson’s
Christian and Missionary Alliance Home at the time. Also at
the Mission at that time was someone identified by Barratt
as “ Pastor March D.D.”(sic)4. This was in fact
Dr F E Marsh. He was the same F E Marsh who had been the minister
of Bethesda Baptist Church, Sunderland from July 1887 to October
T B Barratt arrived in Sunderland on Saturday,
August 31st, 1907 where he was to preach for the vicar of
All Saints’ Church, Alexander Boddy on the next day.
The minister of Bethesda Baptist Church in
succession to Marsh was Graham Scroggie (1877-1958). Scroggie
served as minister in Sunderland until September 1916 when
he removed to Edinburgh as minister of Charlotte Chapel. Both
during his time in Sunderland and later at Edinburgh he was
to be one of the speakers at the Keswick Convention. By a
strange coincidence the preacher at the Baptist Chapel on
Sunday, September 1st was none other than F E Marsh. The two
men do not seem to have met on this occasion but there can
be no doubt that Marsh exchanged some words with Scroggie
concerning Sunderland’s Norwegian visitor. Dr Marsh’s
name crops up several times in later years, always as an opponent
of Pentecostalism. Scroggie was on reasonably friendly terms
with vicar Boddy and we find that he preached at Boddy’s
church in 1909. His sermon on the Inspiration of the Bible
was printed in All Saints’ Parish Magazine in June 1909.
There were to be many others who would also
provide opposition to the infant movement.
There was another visiting preacher in Sunderland
on the first Sunday in September 1907. This was the founder
of the Pentecostal League, Richard Reader Harris K.C. (1847-1909).
This Holiness group had a large following in Sunderland area
where they had some nine centres. They sold more copies of
their paper, Tongues of Fire in Sunderland than in any other
place outside London.
Barratt in his Diary, 6 “ My Visit
to England,” under the date of October 4th says:
Mr Reader Harris delivered two lectures
in the Victoria Hall in this city last week. The first on
‘ Tongues’ and the second on ‘ Spiritism’
in which he denounced the movement in terms far from Christian
Barratt delivered an address in the Parish
Hall on Sunday “…in which all his points were
contested and according to the general opinion, perfectly
refuted. One clergyman who was rather sceptical and anxious
had not dared to attend the meetings or call at the Vicarage,
rushed in after the lectures to congratulate Boddy with the
success given me. He said that he had heard Mr R. H. lecture
and that I had completely answered all his arguments. I thank
God for these and intend to publish the address leaving out
anything of a personal nature.”
Barratt issued a number of pamphlets and
several of these were later incorporated into the first edition
of his book, In The Days of the Latter Rain.7.
Dr Alfred T Schofield of 19 Harley Street,
London visited Sunderland late in 1907 in connection with
the writing of his book on Christian Sanity.8. In a later
book of reminiscences entitled, Behind the Brass Plate, 9.
he tells us that some of the members of his family had joined
the Pentecostal Movement. He states that speaking in tongues
seemed in his opinion to clash with the idea of Christian
sanity! He therefore visited Sunderland in order to investigate
the matter at first hand. He does not give us the date but
the “ able and quiet clergyman, who did not himself
speak in tongues at all-but was waiting for the gift”
was Boddy. We know from Boddy’s, Pentecost at Sunderland:
A Vicar’s Testimony, 10. that he spoke in tongues for
the first time on December 2, 1907. In the later book Dr Schofield
tells this story under the headline, “ Odd stories.”
As well as writing several short items in
his paper, Tongues of Fire,11.Reader Harris issued a pamphlet
entitled, The Gift of Tongues: A Warning. In this he was forced
on the defensive and had to concede 1. That the gift of tongues
was not unscriptural. 2. That tongues may accompany the Pentecostal
blessing. 3. By having to concede that not all Christians
have the gift he was forced to admit that some might have.
If a leading King’s Council had to admit so much where
did that leave the less sophisticated member of the League?
No wonder that the Pentecostal teaching made such inroads
into the ranks of the Pentecostal League. Some years later
another Holiness writer, A M Hills of Star Hall, Ancoats,
Manchester, wrote an even more scathing attack in his booklet,
The Tongues Movement.
The Life of Faith and Graham Scroggie.
In 1913 Miss Ada R Habershom wrote a pamphlet,
The Strong Man Spoiled.12.
She gave it the sub-title, “ as shown by the self-styled
‘ Pentecost’ ‘Spirits.’” This
was advertised in the Life of Faith of February 12th, 1913.
It appeared as a footnote by the editor that was attached
to a letter from a North London Baptist minister that protested
at the inclusion of a previous item from Dr W H Griffith Thomas.
The minister was A E Saxby (1873-1960) 13. who was the minister
of a small church in Harringay. At the time that he wrote
the letter he himself had not spoken in tongues. His church
was divided on the issue. In spite of the intervention of
the Secretary of the Baptist Union a majority of the church
left along with the minister and they founded an independent
Pentecostal Church that became known as Derby Hall. Saxby
continued as the minister for many years. It was to this assembly
that the young Donald Gee attached himself and at which he
acted as organist when the Baptist organist became leader
of the opposition party. Saxby became Donald Gee’s first
and only pastor. For a short time he was an important figure
in British Pentecostalism but, when, in 1923 he began to adopt
and to propagate the doctrine known as “ Ultimate Reconciliation,
” he parted company with mainstream Pentecostalism.
The editor of the Life of Faith, a very important
periodical for tracing religious opinions and movements in
Britain and one that has been largely ignored by researchers,
The editor wrote:
We do not for a moment impugn our correspondent’s
good faith when he claims ‘ that thing is of God,’
but from what we have seen and heard of it from ourselves,
we do not hesitate to say that its controlling power has most
certainly not been Divine. We must therefore repeat the warning
that in seeking for particular ‘ gifts ‘ of the
Spirit, instead of the Giver Himself, Christians are running
into deadly peril. Those who desire to study the subject for
themselves should read, ‘ The Baptism of the Spirit
and Speaking in Tongues’ by Rev. W. Graham Scroggie.
(6d. net. from the author, 8 Cedars Park, Sunderland).
Scroggie sent out review copies to several
magazines, including the Christian, Life of Faith, The Sword
and the Trowel and Tongues of Fire. He also sent copies to
Campbell Morgan, F B Meyer, Sir Robert Anderson (head of Scotland
Yard from 1888-1901) and W H Griffiths Thomas and many more.
Campbell Morgan wrote in reply:
I read last night…with the keenest
interest, your pamphlet, I want to thank you profoundly for
it… I have for a long time, and against a good deal
of criticism, been insisting that the baptism of the Spirit
is the initial blessing. You have dealt with this more exhaustedly,
and set forth more clearly than I have done, and I am thankful.
The exposition on speaking in tongues too is exactly what
I needed at the present time.
On the same day he sent a telegram:
Mail me today fifty tongues pamphlets trade
terms sending Bill.
When Scroggie’s extensive archives
came on the market in 1983 it still contained a considerable
number of letters from prominent evangelical leaders from
Dr W H Griffith Thomas (1861-1924), Principal
of Wycliffe College Toronto, wrote to Graham Scroggie on December
13, 1912 to enquire, “… if there is any literature,
book, pamphlet or magazine connected with the Tongues Movement
in England, especially in Sunderland?” He said he wanted
to be able to provide material for a discussion on the subject.
It is to his credit that he was prepared to read some of the
literature produced by the Pentecostals limited as such literature
was at that time.
Amongst the Scroggie papers and a library
of more than 8,000 volumes there was not a single book, pamphlet
or periodical written by any Pentecostal writer. The only
items that I came across were a photograph of Mrs Boddy and
two later pictures of Aimee Semple McPherson and Angelus Temple.
F B Meyer wrote to Scroggie from Regent’s
Park Chapel, London:
I am sure that your conclusions are in accordance
with truth. 24.8. XII
Alexander Boddy wrote a letter that was
published in The Record at the end of March 1907. This was
after his visit to Norway earlier in the month. He followed
this with two more letters that were published in the Christian
Dr A T Pierson, who was minister of Spurgeon’s
Tabernacle, London and editor of the Missionary Review of
the World, contributed a series of articles on Speaking in
Tongues in the Life of Faith in May and July 1907. In 1900
when he wrote his book, Forward Movements in the Half Last
Century it contained a chapter on “ The Pentecostal
Movement.” This told the story of the work of James
Pilkington (1865-1897) of Uganda.
Jessie Penn-Lewis (1861-1927) wrote a long
series of articles warning of the inherent “dangers”
in Pentecostalism. These appeared in the pages of the Christian
from January to March 1908. Her War on the Saints (1912) was
widely read. The periodical the The Overcome (Vol.1, No. 1
January 1909) was to become the chief vehicle for her teaching
until her death on August 15th, 1927.
Philip Mauro (1859-1952), an American patent
lawyer and author of a booklet, Concerning Spiritual Gifts14
wrote two articles in the Christian in January 1911. He returned
to the subject once more in July 1921.
After writing two small booklets early in
1912 (which were to be reprinted many times virtually unchanged
even into the late 1950s- though they were all undated), Scroggie
waited until April and May 1917 before he wrote three articles
in the Life of Faith.
Articles against Pentecostalism in the period
between 1914-1918 were rare. With the outbreak of the First
World War most ministers had other things to occupy their
minds. Some were unfortunately busily engaged in a recruiting
drive. The majority of Pentecostals (except the Apostolic
Faith group from Bournemouth), and their young men in particular
had a conscientious objection to war. Some, like Donald Gee15.
and John Carter were granted exemption. Others, such as Howard
Carter were imprisoned in Wakefield or Dartmoor. Evangelistic
activity was curtailed and the Sunderland Convention of 1914
was to be the last to be held. There was little or no time
for the niceties of theological debate. Few Pentecostals possessed
the theological equipment necessary for such a conflict. They
sought to propagate their teaching in a growing number of
magazines and pamphlets. They were no Tracts For the Times;
there was no Apologia. The magazines were not deeply doctrinal;
they were strongly experiential and they gained and retained
a regular clientele. Their influence cannot be overestimated.
The one who stands at the head of the list
as far as Great Britain was concerned was Alexander A Boddy’s
paper, Confidence. This first appeared as a monthly from April
1908 and it continued for 105 issues until January/February
1917. It was then published every two months until December
1924. There was one issue dated May 1925 and a final issue
Stanley Frodsham (1882-1969)16. of Bournemouth,
who was to be the editor of the Pentecostal Evangel from 1921
to 1940, began his editorial work on his own British paper,
Victory Vol.1, April 1909. This was continued until 1916 even
though he left England in1913.
Cecil Polhill (1860-1938) a former member
of the “ Cambridge Seven” and missionary to China
was baptised in the Spirit in Los Angeles on February 3rd
1908 in the home of George B Studd. On his return to Britain
he associated himself with the Pentecostals and he gave a
considerable amount of money to many of their early efforts.
He published a magazine, Flames of Fire with Which is Incorporated
Tidings from Tibet and Other Lands. Vol.1, No. 1, October
1911. This was continued until 1925. Its main interest is
its reports on the work of the Pentecostal Missionary Union.
Harry Eugene Cantel of the Christian Assembly,
Upper Street, Islington, London let it be known in December
1908 that he was bringing out a paper that he would re-name
the Overcomer. Mrs Penn-Lewis who registered her paper at
the Stationers’ Hall at the same time with that name
upstaged him. He therefore took the name The Overcoming Life.Vol.1.No.1,
January 1909. This continued until his premature death at
the age of 44 on August 21, 1910. The paper was taken over
for a time by T M Jeffreys and ran for a time under the name
of Omega and the Overcoming Life.
William Oliver Hutchinson of Bournemouth
began to publish Showers of Blessing, Vol.1 No.1, January
1910. This continued until past 1926 when No. 50 was printed.
This was the official publication of the Apostolic Faith Church
in Great Britain.
It is not known for certain how many British
Pentecostal papers were published during this period. Many
of them were of short duration. Most of them have somehow
escaped even the British Library Catalogue. Discovery however
is not always easy as they are not all listed under Periodicals
where they would be listed under the name of the town of origin.
The most important, Confidence is not found in that great
library. The British Assemblies of God had an almost complete
set [now housed in the Donald Gee Centre at Mattersey Hall,
where, interestingly some of the Jessie Penn-Lewis is also
held. Some of the missing papers were added from her collection].
When the Brethren writer G H Lang 17. published his pamphlet
the The Early Years of the Tongues Movement18. he had a set
of Confidence loaned to him. [It is now clear that these were
that same set that came from Mrs Penn-Lewis’s set] In
1913 Lang wrote a larger book the Modern Gift of Tongues:
What is it? .
Separate Pentecostal groups began to emerge
in Britain. The first was the Apostolic Faith of William Oliver
Hutchinson. Next came what was to become the Elim Pentecostal
Church that George Jeffreys first founded in Ireland in 1915.
This was followed by the Apostolic Church established in Penygroes,
Wales in 1916 by Daniel Powell Williams. Many of the remaining
independent Pentecostal churches came together in Birmingham
in 1924 to form the Assemblies of God of Great Britain and
Ireland. Each of these groups soon began to issue their own
magazines. The Apostolic Faith in Bournemouth issued the first
of these in January 1910. This was entitled, Showers of Blessing.
It was published monthly until 1925.
The Apostolic Church first issued their
paper, Riches of Grace in April 1916.
The Elim Evangel began in December 1919, first as a quarterly
eventually becoming a weekly publication.
The Assemblies of God issued Redemption
Tidings in July 1924 as a monthly publication.
Each of these was widely read and they became
house journals aimed specifically at their own clientele.
They contained a good deal of news of meetings as well as
also carrying regular contributions on doctrinal subjects
that supported their Pentecostal position.
The opposition to Pentecostalism in Britain
falls into four clear periods. The first period was from October
1907 to 1908. The second period was in 1913. The third time
was in 1921-22 and the fourth in 1930. These might be conveniently
thought of as the curious, the cautious, the critical and
During the first two periods most of the
opposition was from the religious press and from fellow evangelicals
who were opposed to the teaching on speaking in tongues.
This was the main issue of disagreement
in the first period. In the second period the topic was not
raised so frequently. It seems from correspondence that has
recently come to light that some editors thought it better
not to mention “ tongues” in their papers or correspondence
columns with the hope that the matter would die out.
The later opposition came in regard to Divine
healing that was the other distinguishing feature associated
with Pentecostalism. Some might have allowed this if it had
been the simple quiet prayer offered by a minister at the
bedside of a sick person. When those who were looked upon
as evangelists who boldly laid hands on the sick took this
up, this was thought of as a step too far. To take one example
of this we will look at what happened to Stephen Jeffreys
In October 1921 Stephen Jeffreys held a Mission
at Horbury Chapel, Kensington.
This had the enthusiastic support of the
minister, Frederick William Pitt. The relationship between
the two men was so good that an Agreement (which is still
extant) was drawn up in which Stephen should become “…
associated with him [Mr Pitt] as assistant minister or co-pastor
of the said chapel.” In fact it went on further to add
that in the event of the demise of Mr Pitt, who was older
than Stephen, that Stephen should become the sole pastor.
The Mission was a great success and they
had to employ extra people to help with the correspondence
that arose as a consequence and the influx of many new people.
In letters to Stephen Mr Pitt acknowledged that there were
many genuine converts at this time. The young Donald Gee,
then in his first pastorate in Edinburgh was brought to London
where he acted as pianist for the meetings.
A second Mission was planned for 1922. In
anticipation of the success of the next effort Mr Pitt spent
£250 on advertising and on the redecoration of the chapel.
Then, suddenly for some strange reason Mr Pitt wrote a very
strongly worded article for the magazine, Prophetic News and
Israel’s Messenger. A booklet followed this up on The
Tongues Baptism. This was published by what he named the West
London Bible Institute (Second edition 1925).
As might have been expected, Stephen withdrew
from the proposed visit to Horbury Chapel. It is worth noting
here that today this is the home of the leading Elim Church
whose congregation runs into thousands with multiple services
and a very large staff.
The building was to be acquired by Stephen’s
brother George in 1930 after it had seriously declined in
When Stephen withdrew Mr Pitt declared that
he was “shocked and pained” that he had withdrawn
his agreement to go to Horbury Chapel. He wrote threatening
to sue Stephen for the money that they had spent in advance
of the visit. This was for the publicity as well as for the
cost of the redecoration of the building in anticipation of
the expected increase in the numbers attending. Even more
strange was his claim that he did not know that Stephen was
associated with the Pentecostals. How he could fain such ignorance
is difficult to understand. The Prophetic News and other papers
had carried reports of George and Stephen’s meetings.
In his reply Stephen said that he found this
difficult to understand. He went on to explain that he had
also testified that he had been baptised in the Spirit and
that he had said such at a meeting in the presence of Mr Pitt.
The only response from Mr Pitt was another pamphlet entitled,
Faith Healing Tragedies. The Brethren publisher, Pickering
and Inglis, published this.
Further light is thrown upon this time in
a letter to Stephen from Dr Ernest Goode written on Christian
Herald notepaper on March 28th 1922. He told Stephen that
several Christian leaders were refusing to take part in the
Fiftieth Anniversary of the Prophetical Society. The reason
for this was that Stephen and George Jeffreys were to take
part in these meetings. Stephen had played an important part
in the meetings in 1921. He had held special meetings in the
same hall on the eve of the conference. The Prophetic News
had carried a half-page notice of his meetings.
According to Dr Goode’s letter (he
was Honorary Secretary of the Prophetical Society) these leaders
were, Mrs Reader Harris (head of the Pentecostal League-a
Holiness and second coming movement); D M Panton, a well-known
writer and pamphleteer; Rev Percy Hicks, acting editor of
the Christian Herald and F E Marsh who became editor of Prophetic
News. He went on to say that Percy Hicks had so poisoned the
mind of Baxter, the proprietor of the Christian Herald against
the brothers that he had instructed Dr Goode to cross their
names off the list of speakers for the sake of peace. He also
crossed off the names of Marsh and Hicks! He had told Dr Goode
privately that he would invite the brothers to speak without
having their names on the bills.
It just at this time that the brothers were
beginning to see an increasing response to their work, particularly
in Grimsby and in Clapham, London. In both of these places
they were able to establish strong churches that were their
first on the mainland.
When the Elim Evangelistic Band was first
established in Ireland in 1915 it was set up with the deliberate
intention to reach men and women for Christ. In their Minute
Book it was clearly stated that:
The aim of the Alliance [is] not to be that
of encouraging members to leave their denominations. June
Stephen wrote a letter of reply to Mr Pitt
on July 28th 1922. In this he expressed his deep sense of
pain at the remarks on Pentecostals that had been made. The
two men were now so far apart that they had to go their separate
ways. For a few years Stephen would work with his brother
George before linking with the Assemblies of God for few years.
Later he went on a worldwide tour of preaching that took him
to the USA, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa and Europe.
Mr Pitt declined into obscurity.
Stephen’s meetings were widely reported
in the press during this time. The chief focus of attention
was on healing rather than on glossolalia (which was a less
public affair). It should be stated Pentecostal teaching on
the baptism of the Spirit with the evidence of speaking in
tongues formed a part of the proclamation of his evangelistic
preaching though George Jeffreys in common with Boddy and
Polhill did not teach this as “ initial evidence.”
The total coverage obtained by the Pentecostals
in the period between 1922 and 1930 was very considerable
(even if we leave aside consideration of the negative effect
of some of the association with Aimee McPherson). During these
years they opened over 200 churches in spite of difficult
George, Stephen and Stephen’s son Edward
all attracted large crowds to their meetings in spite of the
fact that they had little support from the main denominations.
Towards the end of this period the opposition was replaced
by massive indifference.
The Pentecostals went on their way opening
up a large number of churches and winning many converts. Not
all of the converts joined the Pentecostal churches; many
went back to their own denominations with a newfound zeal.
Many of those who went back to their former associates were
not welcomed. It was not only for their Pentecostalism (for
new converts had to be taught what that meant) but also for
their infectious enthusiasm and in their lively singing and
The two areas of criticism around 1930 stood
polls apart. The first came from a wild Fundamentalist paper,
The Bible Witness, which, in an item in its issue of April
1930 was so extreme that they were forced to publish an Apology
on account of the defamatory nature of the item. The paper
did not give up however and they continued to publish equally
wicked reports that were never better than the gossip of evil
minds. None of these reports gave names or places. They can
be ignored but for the fact that they reflect an attitude
or mentality that needs to be taken into account when modern
writers wrongly accuse Pentecostals of deliberately setting
out to divide Christian communities by seeking to set up separate
The other article that we pause to notice
was one that was contained in the journal, John Bull of January
18th 1930. It carried the title, “ Frenzied Victims
of Hypnotic Pastors.” It contained a picture of George
Jeffreys and two members of his Revival Party. Without actually
accusing them of fraud and dishonesty, it lumped them together
with several others who were accused of obtaining money and
goods by false pretences.
Elim’s legal advisor, John Leech K.C.,
was in favour of making a case of the matter. The Overseers
of Elim were not in favour of such action. Horatio Bottomley
(1860-1933) the proprietor of the paper had faced many libel
actions before- most of which he had lost. He himself had
been sentenced to seven years imprisonment for fraud. The
report was disturbing and at the time that it appeared George
was preaching in Glasgow where he was to open a new church.
A few people attempted to interrupt the meeting by demanding
that he answer the unfounded allegations. He soon dealt with
their complaints as he told them if they had any evidence
to offer they could go to the appropriate authorities. That
was the end of the matter.
In March 1930 George Jeffreys began meetings
in Ebenezer Congregational Church, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham.
A recent researcher has said that the city had been, “
notoriously inhospitable to revivalist religion.” It
had a varied history. Unitarians had been strongly represented
in the city for many years. John Angel James and his successor
Dr R W Dale had represented the nonconformist tradition. The
Anglican Church, who’s first Bishop had been Charles
Gore was then represented by Bishop Barnes.
Whatever its past history it was open for
a move of God. It was to be the scene of George Jeffreys greatest
Crusade. Beginning with less than twenty in the first Wednesday
afternoon, within five days the large church was full and
they had to move progressively to larger meeting places. These
were successively, the Town Hall, the largest Skating Rink
in Europe (seating 8,000) and finally for the last two weeks
the massive Bingley Hall Exhibition Centre (where he preached
twenty-six times). It was George’s longest and most
successful mission. They recorded some 10,000 converts and
within 5 or 6 years they had opened six churches.
There had been a small gathering held in
nearby Smethwick in the Temperance Hall, Cross Street in March
1909. Alexander Boddy, Cecil Polhill, A M Niblock and G R
Polman from Holland addressed the meeting. Who would have
guessed that a Pentecostal preacher would draw such crowds
some twenty years later?
Now, Birmingham is one of the places where
the University has a department especially devoted to the
study of Pentecostalism.
None of us wants to go back to those intolerant
times. On the other hand a real or perceived opposition is
said to be the “ Fifth Factor” crucial to the
growth and spread of a modern religious movement. This may
be true but the promise of the writer of Proverbs is better:
“When a man’s ways are pleasing
to the LORD, he makes even his enemies live at peace with
him”. Proverbs 16:7.
1. Reprinted in Frank Bartleman’s,
Azusa Street, Logos, Plainfield, N.J., 1980, pp.174-177.
2. Bartleman, Frank, What Happened at Azusa
Street, Voice Publications, Northridge, Cal., 1982, p.26.
3. Like as of Fire, Reprint of the old Azusa
Street papers collected by Fred T Corum, Wilmington, Mass.,
1981. This is a reprint of the first 13 issues of the Los
Angeles, Apostolic Faith from September 1906 to May 1908.
4. T B Barratt, When the Fire Fell: An Outline
of My Life, Alfons Hansen and Somer, Oslo, Norway, 1926, p.113.
Idem. Erindring,, Oslo, 1941, p. 106.
5. Bethesda Record, ed. Graham Scroggie,
Sunderland, October 1907, p.5.
6. The original of Barratt’s Diary,
“ My Visit to England, 1907” is now deposited
in Oslo State University Library together with his papers.
7. T B Barratt, In the Days of the Latter
Rain, Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent and Co. Ltd., 1909.
Reprinted by Elim Publishing Company, Clapham, London 1928.
8. A T Schofield, Christian Sanity, 1908,
2nd edition 1926.
9. A T Schofield, Behind the Brass Plate,
Sampson and Low, Marston and Co. Ltd., n.d.
10. A A Boddy, Pentecost For Sunderland:
A Vicar’s Testimony, 5th reprint 1909.
11. These are: October 1907, p.11; April
1907, p. 6; July 1907, p. 6.; September 1907, p.9. November
1907, p.1ff; January 1907, p.7. For details see Bloch-Hoell,
p.82. Also in more detail Martin Robinson, Two Anglican Pentecostal
Clergymen: A Comparison between the Life and Work of Alexander
A Boddy and Michael C Harper, M. Litt. Diss. Birmingham University,
12. Ada R Habershom, The Strong Man Spoiled,
Pickering and Inglis.
13. For A E Saxby see Donald Gee, These Men
I Knew, See also A E Saxby, Things New and Old, Vol 1, No.
1, April 1921.
14. Philip Mauro, Concerning Spiritual Gifts,
Morgan and Scott, London, 1908.
15. For Gee see B R Ross, In Search of a
Church, D. Th. thesis, Knox College, Toronto, Canada, 1974.
For Howard Carter see, John Carter, Howard Carter-Man of the
Spirit, Assemblies of God, Nottingham, 1971. John Carter,
A Full Life, Assemblies of God, Nottingham, 1979.
16. For Stanley Frodsham see his daughter’s
biography, Faith Campbell, Stanley Frodshan: Prophet With
a Pen, Assemblies of God Publishing House, Springfield, Missouri,
1974. Confidence, Ed. Alexander Boddy, November 1908.
17. G H Lang, The Modern Tongues Movement,
Wimborne, Dorset, 1958.